The Particular Judgement is what happens immediately after someone dies. Immediately the soul is sent to either hell or heaven or passes through the purifying fires of purgatory before going to heaven. This judgement is private.
The Final Judgement is what happens at the close of age; at the end of the world when Christ “come again in glory to Judge the living and the dead”, he will establish his kingdom on earth and renew the face of creation. This is a public judgement. Then, the dead will resurrect and reunite with their bodies, transformed and new. This is what the Church teaches.